Alzheimer ka maʻi

Loaʻa i ka Wisepowder kahi laulā o nā mea maka o ka maʻi Alzheimer, a he ʻōnaehana hoʻokele maikaʻi loa.

Hōʻike i ka 1-4 o nā hualoaʻa 8

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ʻO ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer

ʻO ka maʻi Alzheimer kahi ʻano holomua o ka dementia. ʻO Dementia kahi manawa ākea no nā kūlana i hoʻokumu ʻia e nā ʻeha o ka lolo a i ʻole nā ​​maʻi e hoʻopili maikaʻi ʻole i ka hoʻomanaʻo, ka noʻonoʻo, a me ka lawena. Hoʻopilikia kēia mau hoʻololi i ka nohona o kēlā me kēia lā.
Wahi a ka Alzheimer's Association, ʻo ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer he 60 a 80 paha ka pākēneka o nā hihia dementia. Loaʻa ka hapanui o ka poʻe me kēia maʻi i kahi hōʻailona ma hope o ka makahiki 65. Inā ʻike ʻia ia ma mua o ia manawa, kuhikuhi ʻia ia ma ke ʻano he maʻi hoʻomaka ʻo Alzheimer.

Nā kumu o ka maʻi Alzheimer

ʻO ke kumu (s) o ka maʻi Alzheimer (ʻaʻole) ʻike ʻia. ʻO ke kuhiakau "amyloid cascade" ke kuhiakau nui e pili ana i ke kumu o ka maʻi o Alzheimer. ʻO ka ʻikepili ikaika e kākoʻo ana i ke kuhiakau o ka cascade amyloid e hele mai ia mai ke aʻo ʻana i ka hoʻoili mua i hoʻoili ʻia (genetic) ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer. Ua loaʻa nā hoʻololi e pili ana i ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer ma kahi o ka hapalua o nā mea maʻi me ka maʻi hoʻomaka mua. I kēia mau maʻi āpau, alakaʻi ka hoʻololi i ka hana nui i ka lolo o kahi ʻano kikoʻī o kahi ʻāpana protein liʻiliʻi i kapa ʻia ʻo ABeta (Aβ). Manaʻo ka poʻe ʻepekema he nui i ka hapa nui o sporadic (ʻo kahi laʻana, ʻaʻohe hoʻoilina) o nā maʻi o Alzheimer (ʻo kēia ka hapa nui o nā hihia āpau o ka maʻi Alzheimer) he liʻiliʻi loa ka hemo ʻana o kēia protein Aβ ma mua o ka nui o ka hana. I kēlā me kēia hihia, ʻo ka hapa nui o ka noiʻi ʻana i ka ʻimi ʻana i nā ala e pale ai a hōʻemi ai paha i ka maʻi o Alzheimer e kia ana i nā ala e hōʻemi ai i ka nui o ka Aβ i ka lolo.

Nā ʻōuli o Alzheimer

Loaʻa i nā kānaka āpau nā ʻāpana o ka hoʻopoina i kēlā me kēia manawa. Akā ʻo ka poʻe me ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer e hōʻike i kekahi mau ʻano hoʻomau a me nā ʻōuli e ʻoi aku ana i ka manawa. Hiki i kēia mau mea ke:
  • ka nalowale hoʻomanaʻo ʻana e pili ana i nā hana o kēlā me kēia lā, e like me ka hiki ke mālama i nā wā koho
  • pilikia me nā hana i kamaʻāina, e like me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka hawewe uila
  • nā pilikia me ka hoʻoponopono pilikia
  • pilikia me ka haʻiʻōlelo a kākau paha
  • lilo i disorient e pili ana i nā manawa a me nā wahi
  • hoʻēmi i ka hoʻokolokolo
  • hoʻemi i ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe pilikino
  • loli ke ʻano a me ke ʻano
  • ka haʻalele ʻana mai nā hoaaloha, ʻohana, a me ke kaiāulu
E loli nā ʻōuli o ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer e like me ke kahua o ka maʻi.

Mālama ʻo Alzheimer

ʻAʻohe lāʻau lapaʻau i ʻike ʻia no ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer, hāʻawi nā lāʻau i loaʻa i kahi pono liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi akā ke hoʻomau nei i ka palliative i ke kūlohelohe.
ʻO ka mālama ʻana i ka maʻi o Alzheimer me nā lāʻau i hoʻokumu ʻia a me nā lāʻau ʻole. ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻA he ʻAt S ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ʻ ’A lumahi’ ʻolahi ʻelua mau papa ʻona laulima ʻē aʻe e lapaʻau mua ai i ka maʻi Alzheimer: ʻAʻole kekahi papa o nā lāʻau i hōʻoia e lohi i ka wikiwiki o ka holomua o ka maʻi Alzheimer. Eia nō naʻe, hōʻike ka nui o nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua i kēia mau lāʻau i ʻoi aku ma mua o placebos (pills kō) i ka hoʻomaha ʻana i kekahi mau ʻōuli.
Hoʻoikaika lāʻau lapaʻau
▪ Cholinesterase mea kūpale (ChEI)
I nā mea maʻi me ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer aia kahi hemahema o ka lolo neurotransmitter ʻino i kapa ʻia acetylcholine. Ua hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi nui i ka nui o ka acetylcholine i ka hiki ke hana i nā mea hoʻomanaʻo hou. ʻO nā mea kāohi cholinesterase (ChEIs) ālai i ka haki ʻana o ka acetylcholine. A ʻo kahi hopena, loaʻa ka acetylcholine hou aʻe i ka lolo, a e maʻalahi paha ka hana ʻana i nā mea hoʻomanaʻo hou.
Ua ʻāpono ʻia ʻehā mau ChEI e ka FDA, akā ʻo donepezil hydrochloride wale nō (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon), a me galantamine (Razadyne - i kapa ʻia ʻo Reminyl) i hoʻohana ʻia e ka nui o nā kauka no ka mea ʻo ka hā o ka lāʻau, ʻo tacrine (Cognex) nā hopena ʻē aʻe i makemake ʻole ʻia. ma mua o nā mea ʻekolu. ʻO ka hapa nui o ka poʻe loea i ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer ʻaʻole lākou i manaʻo he ʻokoʻa nui ka hopena o kēia mau lāʻau ʻekolu. Hōʻike kekahi mau noiʻi e ʻike i ka holomua o nā ʻōuli ma luna o kēia mau lāʻau i ka papa no ʻeono a 12 mau mahina, akā ʻaʻole hiki ke ʻike ʻia ua hoʻomaka hou ka holomua.
ʻO nā ChEI ʻekolu e hoʻohana ākea ʻia, rivastigmine a me galantamine wale nō i ʻae ʻia e ka FDA no ka haʻahaʻa a liʻiliʻi i ka maʻi Alzheimer, akā ʻae ʻia ka donepezil no ka maʻi akahai, haʻahaʻa, a me ka maʻi Alzheimer nui. ʻAʻole maopopo inā he pono ka rivastigmine a me ka galantamine i ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer nui, ʻoiai ʻaʻole he kumu kūpono e pono ʻole ai lākou.
Hoʻopili nā hopena ʻaoʻao nui o ChEI i ka ʻōnaehana gastrointestinal a hoʻokomo i ka nausea, ka luaʻi, cramping, a me ka diarrhea. ʻO ka maʻamau maʻamau hiki ke kāohi ʻia i nā hopena ʻē aʻe me ka loli o ka nui a i ʻole ka manawa o ka lāʻau a lawelawe ʻana i nā lāʻau me kahi meaʻai liʻiliʻi. ʻO ka hapa nui o nā mea maʻi e hoʻomanawanui i nā lāʻau lapaʻau o ChEIs.
▪ Nā antagonists glutamate hapa
ʻO Glutamate ka neurotransmitter pīhoihoi nui i ka lolo. Hōʻike kekahi kumumanaʻo e nui paha ka maikaʻi o ka glutamate no ka lolo a hana i ka deterioration o nā nerve nerve. Hana ʻo Memantine (Namenda) e ka hoʻēmi hapa ʻana i ka hopena o ka glutamate e hoʻoulu ai i nā hunaola nerve. Ua hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi e hiki i kekahi mau mea maʻi ma memantine ke mālama iā lākou iho ma mua o ka poʻe maʻi ma nā lāʻau kō (placebos). Ua ʻae ʻia ʻo Memantine no ka mālama ʻana i ka dementia kaulike a koʻikoʻi, a ʻaʻole hōʻike nā haʻawina he kōkua ia i ka dementia mālie. Hiki nō hoʻi ke mālama i nā mea maʻi me nā AchE ʻelua a me ka memantine me ka nalowale ʻole o ka pono o nā lāʻau a i ʻole ka hoʻonui ʻana i nā hopena ʻaoʻao.
Ma waho aʻe, hōʻike ʻia nā noiʻi he nui e hoʻohana pono ʻia nā lāʻau ʻo J147, CAD-31, CMS 121, a pēlā aku no ka maʻi o Alzheimer i nā mole o ka ʻiole o ka ʻelemakule wikiwiki. ʻO J147 kahi lāʻau hoʻokolohua me nā hopena i hōʻike ʻia e kūʻē i nā maʻi ʻelua o Alzheimer a me nā ʻelemakule ma nā iole o ka ʻelemakule wikiwiki. A hoʻonui i ka hana neurogenic ma luna o J147 i loko o nā neural precursor cells i loaʻa i kāna derivative i kapa ʻia ʻo CAD-31.
Lapaʻau pono ʻole ʻia
Ma waho aʻe o ka lāʻau lapaʻau, hiki i nā loli nohona ke kōkua i ka mea maʻi maʻi alzheimer
mālama i ko lākou kūlana, e like me ka heluhelu ʻana i nā puke (ʻaʻole naʻe nā nūpepa), ke pāʻani ʻana i nā pāʻani papa, ke hoʻopau ʻana i nā pāhaʻi, ke kani ʻana i nā mea kani, a i ʻole ka launa pū ʻana e hōʻike i ka hoʻemi ʻia o ka pilikia no ka maʻi o Alzheimer.

Reference:

  1. Matthews, KA, Xu, W., Gaglioti, AH, Holt, JB, Croft, JB, Mack, D., & McGuire, LC (2018). Kuhi ka lāhui a me ka lāhui o ka maʻi Alzheimer a me nā dementias e pili ana i United States (2015–2060) i nā mākua mai 65 mau makahiki. ʻO Alzheimer & Dementia. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.06.3063ikona kūwaho
  2. Xu J, Kochanek KD, Sherry L, Murphy BS, Tejada-Vera B. Nā make: ka ʻikepili hope loa no ka makahiki 2007. Nā hōʻike helu nui a ka lehulehu; vol. 58, ʻaʻole. 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center no nā Heluhelu Ola. 2010
  3. ʻO ka maʻi Alzheimer - Kumu (NHS)
  4. Patterson C, Feightner JW, Garcia A, Hsiung GY, MacKnight C, Sadovnick AD (Pepeluali 2008). "Nānā a me ka mālama ʻana i ka dementia: 1. ʻIke loiloi a me ka pale mua ʻana i ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer". CMAJ. 178 (5): 548-56
  5. ʻO McGuinness B, Craig D, Bullock R, Malouf R, Passmore P (Iulai 2014). "Statins no ka mālama ʻana i ka dementia". ʻO kaʻikepili Cochrane o nā loiloi ʻōnaehana
  6. Stern Y (Iulai 2006). "Reserve cognitive a me Alzheimer maʻi". ʻO ka maʻi Alzheimer a me nā maʻi e pili pū ana. 20 (3 Hōʻuluʻulu 2): S69-74
  7. "Hōʻike ka lāʻau lapaʻau hoʻāʻo i ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer e hōʻike i nā hopena anti-kūnewa" (Press release). Ke Kula ʻo Salk. 12 Nowemapa 2015. Loaʻa iā Nowemapa 13, 2015